Frank Kameny

Frank

Attending a Gay Pride event on June 12, 2010

Born

Franklin Edward Kameny


May 21, 1925

New York City, New York, US

DiedOctober 11, 2011 (aged 86)
NationalityAmerican
Alma materQueens College
Harvard University
Occupation
  • Politician
  • scientist (astronomer)
  • army personnel
  • activist
Known for

Franklin Edward Kameny (May 21, 1925 – October 11, 2011)[1] was an American gay rights activist. He has been referred to as one of the most significant figures in the American gay rights movement.[2]

In 1957, Kameny was dismissed from his position as an astronomer in the U.S. Armys Army Map Service in Washington, D.C., because of his homosexuality,[3] leading him to begin a Herculean struggle with the American establishment that would spearhead a new period of militancy in the homosexual rights movement of the early 1960s.[4]

Kameny formally appealed his firing by the U.S. Civil Service Commission.[5] Although unsuccessful, the proceeding was notable as the first known civil rights claim based on sexual orientation pursued in a U.S. court.[6]

Early life and firing[edit]

src=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Kameny_v_Brucker_005.jpg/220px-Kameny_v_Brucker_005.jpg

Page from Petition for Writ of Certiorari – Number 676 – Kameny v. Brucker, National Archives

Kameny was born to Ashkenazi Jewish parents in New York City. He attended Richmond Hill High School and graduated in 1941. In 1941, at age 16, Kameny went to Queens College, City University of New York to learn physics and at age 17 he told his parents that he was an atheist.[7][8] He was drafted into the United States Army before completion. He served in the Army throughout World War II in Europe, and later served 20 years on the Selective Service board.[9] After leaving the Army, he returned to Queens College and graduated with a baccalaureate in physics in 1948. Kameny then enrolled at Harvard University; while a teaching fellow at Harvard, he refused to sign a loyalty oath without attaching qualifiers, and exhibited a skepticism against accepted orthodoxies.[7] He graduated with both a masters degree (1949) and doctorate (1956) in astronomy. His doctoral thesis was titled A Photoelectric Study of Some RV Tauri and Yellow Semiregular Variables[10] and was written under the supervision of Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin.

While on a cross-country return trip from Tucson, where he had just completed his research for his PhD thesis, he was arrested by plainclothes police officers at a San Francisco bus terminal after a stranger had approached and groped him. He was promised that his criminal record would be expunged after serving three years probation, relieving him from worrying about his employment prospects and any attempt at fighting the charges.[11]

Relocating to Washington, D.C., Kameny taught for a year in the Astronomy Department of Georgetown University and was hired in July 1957 by the United States Army Map Service. When they learned of his San Francisco arrest, Kamenys superiors questioned him, but he refused to provide information regarding his sexual orientation. Kameny was fired by the commission soon afterward. In January 1958, he was barred from future employment by the federal government. As author Douglass Shand-Tucci later wrote,

Kameny was the most conventional of men, focused utterly on his work, at Harvard and at Georgetown... He was thus all the more rudely shocked when the same fate befell him as weve seen befall Prescott Townsend, class of 1918, decades before... He was arrested. Later he would be fired. And, like Townsend, Kameny was radicalized.[12]

Kameny appealed against his firing through the judicial system, losing twice before seeking review from the United States Supreme Court, which turned down his petition for certiorari.[5] After devoting himself to activism, Kameny never held a paid job again and was supported by friends and family for the rest of his life. Despite his outspoken activism, he rarely discussed his personal life and never had any long-term relationships with other men, stating merely that he had no time for them. He stated, If I disagree with someone, I give them a chance to convince me they are right. And if they fail, then I am right and they are wrong and I will just have to fight them until they change.[13]

Kameny eschewed conventional racial designations; throughout his life, he consistently cited his race as human.[14]

Gay rights activism[edit]

src=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/JFKWHCNF-1418-002-p0002.jpg/220px-JFKWHCNF-1418-002-p0002.jpg

Letter from Kameny to President Kennedy, JFK Library

In 1961, Kameny and Jack Nichols, fellow co-founder of the Washington, D.C., branch of the Mattachine Society, launched some of the earliest public protests by gays and lesbians with a picket line at the White House on April 17, 1965.[15][16] In coalition with New Yorks Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis, the picketing expanded to target the United Nations, the Pentagon, the United States Civil Service Commission, and Philadelphias Independence Hall for what became known as the Annual Reminder for gay rights. Kameny also wrote to President Kennedy asking him to change the rules on homosexuals being purged from the government.[17]

In 1963, Kameny and Mattachine launched a campaign to overturn D.C. sodomy laws; he personally drafted a bill that finally passed in 1993.[15] He also worked to remove the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[15]

In 1964, Kameny argued that homosexuals faced more severe discrimination than blacks because the federal government did not help them and actively discriminated against them. He said that homosexuals would fare worse from the success of the civil rights movement: Now that it is becoming unfashionable to discriminate against Negroes, discrimination against homosexuals will be on the increase... Homosexuality represents the last major area where prejudice and discrimination are prevalent in this country.[18]

Unlike other homosexual activists at the time, Kameny rejected the idea that homosexuality was inferior to heterosexuality:[18]

I do not see the NAACP and CORE worrying about which chromosome and gene produced a black skin, or about the possibility of bleaching the Negro. I do not see any great interest on the part of the Bnai Brith Anti-Defamation League on the possibility of solving problems of anti-semitism by converting Jews to Christians . . . We are interested in obtaining rights for our respective minorities AS Negroes, AS Jews, and AS HOMOSEXUALS. Why we are Negroes, Jews, or Homosexuals is totally irrelevant, and whether we can be changed to Whites, Christians, or heterosexuals is equally irrelevant.

Kameny further argued that homosexuality can be a social good: I take the stand that not only is homosexuality, whether by inclination or overt act, not immoral, but that homosexual acts engaged in by consenting adults are moral, in a positive and real sense, and are right, good and desirable, both for the individual participants and for the society in which they live. Eventually, he coined the slogan Gay is Good after listening to Stokely Carmichael chant black is beautiful in 1968.[18]

1970–2000[edit]

In 1971, Kameny became the first openly gay candidate for the United States Congress[19] when he ran in the District of Columbias first election for a non-voting Congressional delegate.[15] Following his defeat by Democrat Walter E. Fauntroy, Kameny and his campaign organization created the Gay and Lesbian Alliance of Washington, D.C., an organization which continues to lobby government and press the case for equal rights.[20]

In 1972, Kameny and Barbara Gittings convinced the American Psychiatric Association (APA) to hold a debate, Psychiatry: Friend or Foe to the Homosexual?; A Dialogue at their annual meeting in Dallas. It was for this debate that Dr. John E. Fryer, a gay psychiatrist in disguise as Dr. Henry Anonymous, testified as to how homosexuality being listed as a mental disease in the APAs Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) affected the lives of gay psychiatrists and other homosexuals. Kameny had approached numerous gay psychiatrists, but Fryer was the only one who agreed to testify, and even he would only do so in disguise for fear of losing his position at Temple University, where he did not have tenure.[21] The following year, the APA removed homosexuality from the DSM. Kameny described that day – December 15, 1973 – as the day we were cured en masse by the psychiatrists.[22]

Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the US Military author Randy Shilts documented Kamenys work in advising several service members in their attempts to receive honorable discharges after being discovered to be gay. For 18-year-old Marine Jeffrey Dunbar:

Kameny lined up gay ex-Marines to testify at the young mans hearing. The Washington Post ran an editorial supporting an upgraded discharge, noting that Dunbar was involved in no scandal and had brought no shame on the Marine Corps, and called the undesirable discharge a strange and, we think, pointless way of pursuing military justice.

In 1975, his search for a gay service member with an impeccable record to initiate a challenge to the militarys ban on homosexuals culminated in protégé Leonard Matlovich, a Technical Sergeant in the United States Air Force with 11 years of unblemished service and a Purple Heart and Bronze Star, purposely outing himself to his commanding officer on March 6, 1975. Matlovich had first read about Kamenys goal in an interview in the Air Force Times. Talking first by telephone, they eventually met and, along with ACLU attorney David Addlestone, planned the legal challenge. Their relationship was strained after Matlovichs interview with the New York Times Magazine, as Kameny felt that Matlovich had portrayed the gay community negatively by saying that he would have preferred to be straight.[23]

Discharged in October 1975, Matlovich was ordered reinstated by a federal district court in 1980 in a ruling that, technically, would only have applied to him. Convinced the Air Force would create another excuse to discharge him again, Matlovich accepted a financial settlement instead, and continued his gay activism work until his death from AIDS complications in June 1988. Kameny was an honorary pallbearer at his funeral and spoke at graveside services in Washington, D.C.s Congressional Cemetery.

On March 26, 1977, Kameny and a dozen other members of the gay and lesbian community, under the leadership of the then-National Gay Task Force, briefed then-Public Liaison Midge Costanza on much-needed changes in federal laws and policies. This was the first time that gay rights were officially discussed at the White House.[24][25]

Kameny was appointed as the first openly gay member of the District of Columbias Human Rights Commission in the 1970s.[9]

src=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Frank_Kameny_in_June_2009.jpg/350px-Frank_Kameny_in_June_2009.jpg

Kameny in front of signs used during protests. June 2009

2000–2011[edit]

In 2007, Kamenys death was mistakenly reported by The Advocate in its May 22 Pride issue, alongside a mistaken report that he had HIV. The report was retracted with an apology, and Kameny asked The Advocate, Did you give a date of death?[26]

In 2007, Kameny wrote a letter to the conservative, anti-gay publication WorldNetDaily in defense of Idaho Republican senator Larry Craig regarding Craigs arrest for solicitation of sex in a Minneapolis airport bathroom; he ended it with the following: I am no admirer of Larry Craig and hold out no brief for him. He is a self-deluding hypocritical homophobic bigot. But fair is fair. He committed no crime in Minneapolis and should not suffer as if he did. The New York Times Frank Rich joined Kameny in calling for Craigs pardon.[27]

In November 2007, Kameny wrote an open letter of protest to NBC journalist Tom Brokaw (and his publisher Random House), who wrote Boom!: Voices of the Sixties Personal Reflections on the 60s and Today, over the total lack of mention of gay and lesbian rights activism during the 1960s and upbraiding Brokaw for having de-gayed an entire generation.[28] The letter was co-signed by former Washington Post editor Howard Kurtz, Harry Rubinstein (curator, National Museum of American History), John Earl Haynes, Dudley Clendinen and Stephen Bottum. Brokaw appeared on Kurtzs CNN show Reliable Sources to defend the exclusion, saying that the gay rights movement came slightly later. It lifted off during that time and I had to make some choices about what I was going to concentrate on. The big issues were the anti-war movement, the counterculture.[29]

Death[edit]

Kameny suffered from heart disease in his last years, but maintained a full schedule of public appearances, his last being a speech to an LGBT group in Washington, D.C. on September 30, 2011.

Kameny was found dead in his Washington home on October 11, 2011 (National Coming Out Day).[30] The medical examiner determined the cause of death to be natural causes due to arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease.[31]

DC statehood activism[edit]

src=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Hector_Rodriguez_and_Frank_Kameny_at_a_DC_Statehood_Rally_on_July_4%2C_2011.jpg/220px-Hector_Rodriguez_and_Frank_Kameny_at_a_DC_Statehood_Rally_on_July_4%2C_2011.jpg

DC Statehood advocates Hector Rodriguez and Frank Kameny at the Palisades neighborhoods annual July 4 parade, 2011. Photo by Ann Loikow.

In 1981, Kameny became an elected delegate[32] to the District of Columbia Statehood Constitutional Convention,[33] which was an initiative towards DC statehood.[34] He remained an advocate for DC statehood through the end of his life.[35] A resident of the Palisades, he was a fixture at the neighborhoods annual July 4 parade.

Awards and honors[edit]

In 2006, Kameny and Barbara Gittings received the first John E. Fryer, MD Award from the American Psychiatric Association.[36]

In 2007, the Smithsonian Institutions National Museum of American History included Kamenys picket signs carried in front of the White House in 1965 in the Smithsonian exhibit Treasures of American History. The Smithsonian now has 12 of the original picket signs carried by gay and lesbian Americans at the first demonstration for gay rights held in front of the White House.[37] The Library of Congress acquired Kamenys papers in 2006, documenting his life and leadership.[38]

In February 2009, Kamenys home in Washington was designated as a Washington, D.C. historic landmark by the District of Columbias Historic Preservation Review Board.[39]

On June 29, 2009, John Berry (Director of the Office of Personnel Management) formally apologized to Kameny on behalf of the United States government.[15][40] Berry, who is openly gay, presented Kameny with the Theodore Roosevelt Award, the OPMs most prestigious award.[41]

src=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4b/Frank_kameny.jpg/170px-Frank_kameny.jpg

Frank Kameny Way in Washington, D.C.

On June 10, 2010, following a unanimous vote by the Dupont Circle Advisory Neighborhood Commission, Washington, D.C. mayor Adrian Fenty unveiled new street signs designating 17th Street between P and R streets, N.W., as Frank Kameny Way in Kamenys honor.[42]

At a luncheon on December 10, 2010 in the Caucus room of the Cannon House Office Building, Kameny was honored with the 2010 Cornelius R. Neil Alexander Humanitarian Award.[43]

Kameny was invited to attend the December 22, 2010, ceremony where President Barack Obama signed the Dont Ask, Dont Tell Repeal Act of 2010. Kameny was a member of Triangle Foundations Board of Advisors.[44]

Following Kamenys death, the giant rainbow flag on the flagpole at the corner of Market Street and Castro Street in the Castro neighborhood of San Francisco was flown at half-mast for 24 hours beginning on the afternoon of October 12, 2011 at the request of the creator of the rainbow flag, Gilbert Baker.[45]

On November 2, 2011, Kamenys house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[46][47]

In January 2012, during its national meeting, the American Astronomical Society held a public ceremony to present a posthumous certificate of appreciation to Kameny,[48] recognizing his exemplary lifelong commitment to promoting equal rights for homosexual men and women and how his activism removed discriminatory barriers that had cut short many careers. The recognition had been planned several months before his death, but Kameny passed before the meeting took place. The award was accepted on behalf of Kameny by his close personal friend Mr. Charles Francis, cofounder of the Kameny Papers Project, and three LGBTQ astronomers at various career stages.

On July 3, 2012, asteroid (40463) Frankkameny was named in Kamenys honor by the International Astronomical Union and the Minor Planet Center.[49][50][51][52][53][54]

In 2013, Kameny was inducted into the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display in Chicago which celebrates LGBT history and people.[55]

In 2015, Kameny received a U.S. Veterans Administration memorial headstone, at Washington, D.C.s Congressional Cemetery at his memorial site; the headstone was dedicated during a ceremony on the morning of November 11, 2015, on Veterans Day.[56] In front of the headstone is a marker inscribed with the slogan Gay is Good.[56] Kameny coined that slogan, and in a 2009 AP interview said about coining it, If I am remembered for anything I hope it will be that.[57]

In June 2019, Kameny was one of the inaugural fifty American pioneers, trailblazers, and heroes inducted on the National LGBTQ Wall of Honor within the Stonewall National Monument (SNM) in New York Citys Stonewall Inn.[58][59] The SNM is the first U.S. national monument dedicated to LGBTQ rights and history,[60] and the walls unveiling was timed to take place during the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots.[61]

The National LGBT Bar Association presents the Frank Kameny Award.[62] annually in honor of Kameny, the only recipient of the LGBT Bar’s Dan Bradley Award who did not have a law degree, to a member of the LGBTQ+ community who has paved the way for important legal victories without a United States Juris Doctorate.[63]

On June 2, 2021, Kameny was featured on that days Google Doodle in celebration of Pride Month.[64]

References[edit]

Citations

  1. ^ Dunlap, David W. (October 12, 2011). Franklin Kameny, Gay Rights Pioneer, Dies at 86. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  2. ^ Bullough, Vern L. (2002), Bullough, Vern L. (ed.), Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context, New York: The Haworth Press, p. 207, ISBN 1-56023-193-9
  3. ^ Chibbaro Jr., Lou (October 4, 2006). Kamenys work finds new home (PDF). Washington Blade. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  4. ^ Johnson, David K. (2002), Franklin E. Kameny (1925–), in Bullough, Vern L. (ed.), Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context, New York: The Haworth Press, pp. 209–18, ISBN 1-56023-193-9
  5. ^ a b Gay rights epicenter named landmark. USA Today. February 27, 2009. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  6. ^ Gaynair, Gillian (June 8, 2009). DC pride festival honors gay rights pioneer Kameny. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  7. ^ a b De Leon, David. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Greenwood Press (June 30, 1994). p. 253.
  8. ^ Jon Rowe (February 14, 2008). Frank Kameny on Atheism, Theism, & Gays. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  9. ^ a b HRC, Franklin E. Kameny. Hrc.org. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  10. ^ A Photoelectric Study of Some RV Tauri and Yellow Semiregular Variables (PDF). Harvard University. May 1956. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  11. ^ Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution. St. Martins Press; 1st edition (June 1, 2004)
  12. ^ Shand-Tucci, Douglas. The Crimson Letter: Harvard, Homosexuality, and the Shaping of American Culture. St. Martins Press; 1st edition (May 19, 2003). p. 268.
  13. ^ Hirshman, Linda. OBIT: Present at the Creation: Frank Kameny, the modest, stubborn man who helped start the gay rights movement. Slate.com October 12, 2011
  14. ^ Cecil Adams (November 22, 1991). What percentage of black parentage do you need to be considered black?. The Straight Dope. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2013.
  15. ^ a b c d e Kameny, Frank (b. 1925). glbtq, Inc. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  16. ^ The Gay Civil Rights Movement Turns to Public Picketing. The Rainbow History Project. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  17. ^ Kameny, Franklin E. www.jfklibrary.org – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Archived from the original on May 24, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c Long, Michael G. (2012). Martin Luther King Jr., Homosexuality, and the Early Gay Rights Movement: Keeping the Dream Straight?. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 124–26. ISBN 978-1-137-27551-6.
  19. ^ Boldt, David R. (February 23, 1971). Homosexual Files Delegate Papers: Number of Contestants Is Now Eight. The Washington Post. p. A17.
  20. ^ Slavin, Sarah (1995). U.S. womens interest groups: Institutional Profiles. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 645. ISBN 0-313-25073-1. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  21. ^ Scasta, David L. (2003) John E. Fryer, MD, and the Dr. H. Anonymous Episode in Drescher, Jack and Merlino, Joseph P. (eds.) (2012) American Psychiatry and Homosexuality: An Oral History Routledge. pp. 15–28 ISBN 978-1136859939; originally published in the Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy 6(4):73–84.
  22. ^ Philip Kennicott (September 8, 2007). At Smithsonian, Gay Rights Is Out of the Closet, Into the Attic. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  23. ^ Kameny, Franklin; Long, Michael G. (October 15, 2014). Gay Is Good: The Letters of Franklin Kameny. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  24. ^ Task Force mourns the death of pioneering gay activist and founding board member Frank Kameny. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. October 11, 2011. Archived from the original on October 3, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. he and a dozen other members of our community briefed then-Public Liaison Midge Costanza
  25. ^ LGBT Advocate White House Aide Costanza Dies. Advocate.com. March 24, 2010. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. Costanza met with gay activists including Frank Kameny, Troy Perry, Elaine Noble, and Task Force co–executive directors Bruce Voeller and Jean OLeary.
  26. ^ Frank Kameny: Alive and laughing. The Advocate. May 16, 2007. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010.
  27. ^ Frank Rich (September 23, 2007). Pardon Poor Larry Craig. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  28. ^ Frank Kameny Writes Tom Brokaw. Kamenypapers.org. November 26, 2007. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  29. ^ Interview With Tom Brokaw; Clinton, Obama Make Headlines With Reaction to Robert Novaks Column. CNN. November 25, 2007. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  30. ^ Chibbaro, Lou (October 11, 2011). Longtime gay activist Frank Kameny passes on. Washingtonblade.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  31. ^ Chibbaro, Lou (October 26, 2011). Medical Examiner says Kameny died of heart disease. Washingtonblade.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  32. ^ Frank Kameny Papers: A Finding Aid to the Collection in the Library of Congress, Biographical Note, Library of Congress, retrieved May 15, 2021.
  33. ^ Statehood Preamble Stresses D.C. Diversity by Paul W. Valentine, Washington Post, March 19. 1982, accessed May 15, 2021.
  34. ^ Finding Aid to Washington, DC Statehood Constitutional Convention records (MS2094), Collection Scope and Content, Special Collections Research Center, The George Washington University, retrieved May 15, 2021.
  35. ^ Frank Kameny, D.C. Statehood Hero, DC Statehood Yes We Can, accessed May 15, 2021.
  36. ^ AGLPNewsletterAug06 (PDF). Retrieved December 16, 2019.
  37. ^ Bianco, p. 167.
  38. ^ Gay Civil Rights Pioneer Frank Kameny Presents Lifetime Papers and Historic Artifacts to the Nation (Press release). Smithsonian National Museum of American History. October 6, 2006. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
  39. ^ Petula Dvorak (February 27, 2009). NW Home of Activist Made Historic Site. Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2009.
  40. ^ Noel Brinkerhoff (June 30, 2009). U.S. Government Formally Apologizes for 1957 Firing of Gay Astronomer. AllGov.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  41. ^ [dead link]Kevin Naff (June 29, 2009). Govt apologizes to Kameny. Washington Blade. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
  42. ^ Chibarro, Jr., Lou (June 8, 2010). Kameny Way ceremony highlights Capital Pride events. The Washington Blade. Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  43. ^ Peter Rosenstein (December 10, 2010). Kameny honored on Capitol Hill. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  44. ^ Triangle Foundation. Tri.org. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007.
  45. ^ Roehr, Bob (October 13, 2011). Gay Pioneer Frank Kameny Dies. Ebar.com – Bay Area Reporter. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  46. ^ National Register to Accept Kameny House. Metroweekly.com. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  47. ^ Mark Meinke (July 22, 2006). National Register of Historic Places Registration: Dr. Franklin E. Kameny Residence (PDF). National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011. (__ pages, with __ figures and __ photos)
  48. ^ AAS Celebrates the Late Dr. Frank Kamenys Lifetime Efforts for Equal Employment Rights | American Astronomical Society. aas.org. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  49. ^ Minor Planets Circular 79711 (PDF). Minor Planet Center. July 3, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
  50. ^ US: Gay rights campaigner Frank Kameny has asteroid named for him Archived July 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Pink News, July 10, 2012.
  51. ^ Asteroid between Mars, Jupiter named for US gay rights pioneer Frank Kameny Archived July 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post, July 10, 2012.
  52. ^ Brett Zongker, Asteroid named for gay rights pioneer Frank Kameny, Business Week, July 10, 2012.
  53. ^ Andrew Davis, Canadian names asteroid for Kameny; Anderson Cooper inspires Chinese Archived August 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Windy City Times, July 10, 2012.
  54. ^ Freya Petersen, Canadian astronomer names asteroid after gay rights activist Archived July 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Alaska Dispatch, July 11, 2012.
  55. ^ Dane Tidwell. Chicagophoenix.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  56. ^ a b FOX (October 30, 2015). DC cemetery honors LGBT World War II veteran, gay rights leader - Story | WTTG. Fox5dc.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  57. ^ Pioneer Who Coined Phrase Gay Is Good Dead at 86. Newser.com. October 12, 2011. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  58. ^ Glasses-Baker, Becca (June 27, 2019). National LGBTQ Wall of Honor unveiled at Stonewall Inn. www.metro.us. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  59. ^ SDGLN, Timothy Rawles-Community Editor for (June 19, 2019). National LGBTQ Wall of Honor to be unveiled at historic Stonewall Inn. San Diego Gay and Lesbian News. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  60. ^ Groups seek names for Stonewall 50 honor wall. The Bay Area Reporter / B.A.R. Inc. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  61. ^ Stonewall 50. San Francisco Bay Times. April 3, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  62. ^ [1]
  63. ^ [2]
  64. ^ Massie, Graeme (June 2, 2021). Written at Los Angeles. Frank Kameny: Google Doodle marks Pride Month by honouring gay rights activist and astronomer. The Independent. London. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Bibliography

  • Bianco, David (1999). Gay Essentials: Facts for Your Queer Brain. Los Angeles: Alyson Books. ISBN 1-55583-508-2.
  • Cervini, Eric (2020). The Deviants War: The Homosexual vs. the United States of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374139797
  • Gambone, Philip (2010) Travels in a Gay Nation: Portraits of LGBTQ Americans. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0299236847
  • Kisseloff, Jeff (2007). Generation on Fire: Voices of Protest from the 1960s, an Oral History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813124162
  • Murdoch, Joyce and Price, Deb (2001). Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians v. the Supreme Court. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465015146

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